Croaker Fish Farming, Breeding& Best 10 Information

Croaker fish farming is the process of raising croaker fish, also known as sea bass, in large tank or pond environments. Aquaculture is often considered to be one of the fastest-growing industries for food production. The United Nations’ Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) estimates that “some 75 percent of the world’s fisheries are either fully exploited or over-exploited.

” A number that is only set to increase due to increasing global demand for protein and growing populations. The term “aquaculture” is often used interchangeably with “fish farming”, but aquaculture is broader in meaning.

Croaker Fish Farming
Croaker Fish Farming

 In aquaculture, fish are farmed, water-bound, or semi-terrestrial animals that are raised under controlled conditions for harvesting of their flesh, their eggs, and their byproducts (e.g., eggs, oil, and fertilizer). Aquaculture includes all species of coldwater fish, warm water fish or plants farmed in water.


How to identify croaker fish?

Croaker is a fish family found in both fresh and saltwater environments. Both species have dark vertical bands on their sides and have a silvery-white belly. The croaker has distinctive red dots on the top of its head and a characteristically protruding lower jaw with pouting lips. Croaker fish is popular the world over as food, but they are also captured for the pet trade, as bait, and for sport fishing.

Croaker fish farming

Very little information is readily available on croaker farming because this species is rarely cultured in aquaculture systems. However, some information on croaker species in different environments is available. Croakers are often found as bycatch in trawl nets and on the commercial markets in Asia.

They are also sold and consumed as food in many parts of the world. Knowledge about croaker farming is extremely limited, but some studies suggest that croakers grow rapidly under good conditions and that about 15 kgs – 20 kgs of croakers can be produced from a day’s fishing effort with a middle-sized boat.

pond preparation

A pond or tank for breeding croakers is made from cement and bricks. The size of the pond can vary from 50,000 liters (13,205 gallons) upwards. The depth of the pond should be about 0.4 to 1 m (1.3 to 3.3 ft). The entire surface of the bottom should be covered with sand to a depth of 15–20 cm and then covered with a layer of smooth rounded stones so that no sharp edges remain.


The diet of croakers could be supplemented with fish meal, which is often preferred over fresh fish. Crab and mussel meals can also be added to the diet.


Females should be easily distinguishable from mature males because females are generally larger than males (25-35 g compared with 10-20 g). Most females develop an elongated body and a large ovipositor, which is approximately 4 cm long. In most cases, this egg will be fertilized and the fertilized eggs develop into large larvae.

The larvae have a large head, protruding lower jaw, and four pairs of gills. They also have a pair of short fins that resemble wings on either side of the head. The body is quite soft and can be broken with your fingers like a plastic toy. Females lay between 20-30 fertile eggs, which are about 1 cm in diameter and about 30 mm long.

The fertilized eggs will hatch into larvae. The larvae have a large head and protruding lower jaw. Like an adult, they have gills on either side of their body and these are used as a respiratory organs. Most of their time is spent in the water column until they hit maturity at around 3 to 4 months old.

Croaker fish feeding

The croaker fish feed on small crustaceans, such as shrimp, crabs, mussels, and other mollusks. They also feed on small fishes and plants.

Special Notes for Croaker fish farming

Croaker culture can be undertaken in any suitable freshwater ponds, lakes, and rivers in the same way carp are cultured. The croakers feed naturally on aquatic insect larvae and crustaceans, mollusks, fish, and aquatic weeds.

Supplementation of the diet with the fish meal is normally recommended in areas having poor food resources. This culture is more suited to inland areas having a high concentration of croakers, which is not uncommon for many countries in SE Asia.


Croaker fish is a good source of food and is an important commercial species in some regions. They are also valued as gamefish, because they fight hard when hooked, and are known to leap out of the water frequently.

Croaker Fish for food
Croaker Fish for food


Croaker can suffer from diseases such as ulcerative syndrome. This condition can be fatal if untreated but mostly affects young fish.

Best 10 information

NameCroaker fish.
Others NameSea bass, Atlantic croaker, black sea bass, spotted sea bass.
Common NameAtlantic croaker.
Breed Class, sizeMarine, Large
ClassBottom fish.
Climate ToleranceCroaker can be raised in any environment.
Water TemperatureAdult croakers are intolerant of low temperatures. A temperature range of 20 to 27 degrees Celsius is recommended
Water Ph7.0-8.5 is optimal for croaker growth and reproduction.
ColorAdult fish are silver all over, with black and red spots on the sides.
DietCroaker feeds on small crustaceans like crabs, shrimp, and mussels; small fishes; aquatic weeds.


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