Green gram is a bean belonging to the family of legumes. what is a legume: a plant that has its seeds enclosed in a pod and usually can fix nitrogen from the atmosphere. Legumes are a critical part of a good soil structure with many nutrients being stored in their root system.
Green gram /green beans grow on vines that need plenty of water and warmth, full sun, and rich soil. Plants produce more flowers at higher temperatures with longer day lengths than they need to produce fruit. Green gram is a plant-based alternative to meat that is rich in proteins and can grow in a matter of weeks.
There are two types of green gram available:
The vegetative form and the reproductive form. The vegetative form is made from whole grains that are harvested while they’re still green, ground up, mixed with water, and then steamed. The reproductive form is created by removing the husk of a grain (without exposing it to oxygen) before mixing it with water and steaming it.
green gram growth stages
Green Gram (Phaseolus vulgaris) is a small bean that can be used for a variety of purposes. Green gram is a hardy and easy-to-grow crop. It grows well in both tropical and temperate climates which start as bush beans on short poles or as climbing vines.
Green gram has been found to withstand temperatures as low as -1 degree Celsius and grow best at higher temperatures of 15-20 degrees Celsius. The pods of green gram, white in color, grow to 3mm in length and are cylindrical with flat sides.
Green gram comes in two varieties one being the medium size variety and the other being the small size variety. The main difference between these two varieties is their nutritional values, which differ slightly. The vegetative form that is used as a green vegetable is harvested before maturity allows to be stored for up to a year at room temperature.
Climate for green gram Farming
Green Gram can be grown throughout India, although in the cold regions it is grown as a seasonal crop. It does not do well in tropical regions because of high humidity and temperature. For green gram plants to grow well, a temperature of about 20 degrees Celsius is optimum with an abundance of sunlight being ideal for optimum growth.
Planting method of green gram
Green gram plants are beginning to grow in most parts of India and can be grown out of the garden or on your farm. They can either be started from seeds or by taking sprouts. Sprouting green gram requires that you soak the seeds overnight, then soak them again for an hour to two hours and then place them in sunlight.
Green gram is commonly known as karela in India. You can get green gram seeds and transform them into green gram plants by planting them in a field, container, or bed.
Select the good land
The place selected should be free from the effect of frost, excessive heat, and floods. The land should not be sandy or stony and should have well-drained soil.
Preparation of the land
Green gram requires fertile and well-drained soil that is rich in nitrogen. Prepare the ground by adding organic matter to it such as manure or green manure in the form of leaves, grasses, and/or composts to it. If you are starting from seeds, sow the land to several small beans with a spacing of 20-30 centimeters between each.
Planting the seeds
Plant the seeds either in a seedbed or in rows directly on top of the soil. The planting depth should be 1.5 – 2 meters depending on the size of your containers and the area that you are farming. Sprinkle seed evenly over the bed or field.
Sow 1-2 seeds per hole, 1.5-2 feet deep, about 6 inches apart. Firm the soil gently with your hands to secure the seed in the hole and keep it from moving as it begins to grow.
Choose A Variety Of green gram and Germination
Covering the seeds
Cover the seeds with soil by raking them lightly with a hoe to ensure that they are not exposed to air and that they get sufficient water to germinate. Covering them with soil also helps to avoid wind and temperature extremes.
Watering the seeds
After planting, water the seeds regularly and continue for a week so that germination takes place and the seedlings become established. Watering should be continued until the seedlings have grown up to 5-6 inches tall. “After that, you can either continue watering them or not. “When the seedlings develop sufficient roots, you can check on their growth by measuring their height or simply by looking at them.
Green gram seed is not difficult to germinate. Planting green gram seeds require some effort, for the seeds will not germinate unless a few conditions are met, and no amount of soaking is enough to make them sprout. Green gram sprouts after soaking overnight. To get green gram to sprout from its seed, remove it from the water and allow it to dry for 2-3 days.
After planting, the green gram should be watered and given a little fertilizer to give it a boost. Allow the seeds to remain in their soil for 7-14 days, after which they will begin sprouting. To get the green gram to sprout, you will want to cover them up and allow them to germinate in a warm place.
When the seeds have 2 or 3 leaves each with a 3-5mm high stem, they are ready for transplanting. You will transplant them into larger containers or directly into your greenhouse. The seedlings are usually transplanted when they have 3 leaves and a height of about 5 cm.
Green gram should be watered until the seedlings develop for a week after which, watering can either continue or can be stopped depending on the weather conditions. If there is a lot of rain, water should continue to be given to them, but if there is no rain and the ground is moist, watering can be stopped.
“The focus should then be on keeping the soil moist and allowing the plants to develop vigorously.”After this, they can be placed in containers with greater spacing between each plant to allow optimal growth. As mentioned before, green gram grows best in temperate climates and hotter temperatures, but it can be grown in other areas such as banks of rivers and irrigation tanks with appropriate irrigation equipment. It is similar to a bush bean.
However, in tropical climates with high temperatures, planting green gram is a little harder and should be planned for the end of the rainy season, when temperatures are cooler. Green gram is grown as a seasonal crop by shifting the seedlings from one place to another depending on temperature.
Fertilizing and Diseases control:
“Green gram does well in organic and inorganic fertilizers. A variety of fertilizers can be added to the soil for better growth. “Green gram is a heavy feeder, so fertilizing the plants is recommended. Any person with a garden can use the fertilizer according to their preference.
Green gram does well in manure, composts, and green manures. Green gram and Bajra are good companions. Add any one of these green manure seeds with your seeds or directly sow on the field after harvesting or before planting the next season. Good manure should be available in plenty throughout the growth period.
Green grams are prone to damage from the attack of pests and insect predators. The major pests that attack green gram are:
Aphids, spider mites, beet armyworms, cutworms, etc. “The insects and pests that attack green gram plants are quite common and are not difficult to deal with.”
“Like all plants, green gram is prone to fungal infections. The major diseases of a green gram are rust and downy mildew. “To prevent the spread of disease and infection, “rotate your crop by planting a different variety each season. This helps minimize disease problems. In addition, take necessary precautions to prevent infected seeds from spreading to other parts of your farm and garden.”
There are several ways of controlling diseases in green gram. Onto the plants, chemical pesticides can be sprayed; “In addition, there are organic pesticides such as garlic and neem oil that can also be used. To prevent diseases from affecting your plants, you should regularly spray them with water and foliar feed them.”
There are different varieties of green gram that grow in various regions around the world. If a variety is not listed here, research can be done on the internet or in scientific publications to learn more.
The green gram seed is sown from July to November (in India). The duration of germination is 20-30 days. The plant is ready for transplanting when it has 3 leaves on each stem and the stem is about 4 cm high. Seedlings are transplanted into larger containers or directly into the field.
Green gram can be grown on a farm and transported to cities in markets. Green gram is cultivated as an important commercial crop in India, other south Asian countries, Africa, Australia, and Nigeria.